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# Motion Control of a Spherical Robot with a Pendulum Actuator for Pursuing a Target

Received 29 September 2022; accepted 23 December 2022; published 30 December 2022

2022, Vol. 18, no. 5, pp.  899-913

Author(s): Mikishanina E. A.

The problem of controlling the rolling of a spherical robot with a pendulum actuator pursuing a moving target by the pursuit method, but with a minimal control, is considered. The mathematical model assumes the presence of a number of holonomic and nonholonomic constraints, as well as the presence of two servo-constraints containing a control function. The control function is defined in accordance with the features of the simulated scenario. Servo-constraints set the motion program. To implement the motion program, the pendulum actuator generates a control torque which is obtained from the joint solution of the equations of motion and derivatives of servo-constraints. The first and second components of the control torque vector are determined in a unique way, and the third component is determined from the condition of minimizing the square of the control torque. The system of equations of motion after reduction for a given control function is reduced to a nonautonomous system of six equations. A rigorous proof of the boundedness of the distance function between a spherical robot and a target moving at a bounded velocity is given. The cases where objects move in a straight line and along a curved trajectory are considered. Based on numerical integration, solutions are obtained, graphs of the desired mechanical parameters are plotted, and the trajectory of the target and the trajectory of the spherical robot are constructed.
Keywords: spherical robot, pendulum actuator, control, equations of motion, nonholonomic constraint, servo-constraint, pursuit, target
Citation: Mikishanina E. A., Motion Control of a Spherical Robot with a Pendulum Actuator for Pursuing a Target, Rus. J. Nonlin. Dyn., 2022, Vol. 18, no. 5, pp.  899-913
DOI:10.20537/nd221223 